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Breeding experiments Increase in population has forced us to carry out continuous scientific experiments for the following reasons viz treatment 02 bournemouth purchase secnidazole 500 mg visa. By introducing specialized technology medications heart failure best 500 mg secnidazole, plant breeders are now able to develop more crops medicine lookup secnidazole 500mg mastercard, which they multiply and supply them to the growers. Aims of plant breeding The first and foremost aim in plant breeding is to create useful variation in the crop plant. Introduction of plants from nearby regions or even from other countries for improvement of the crop. Production of haploids by the application of plant tissue culture of anther and ovary. We have several wild varieties existing in nature just as in the case of salinity tolerant wild rice. Through gene manipulation, the gene for salinity tolerance could be cloned in a rice variety. In such of those areas where shortage of fresh water exists, rice can be cultivated using seawater and can even be grown in extreme saline soil. Similarly, we need many more such wild plants showing increased capacity to extremes of climatic conditions and disease resistance for plant breeding programmes. In order to safeguard the biodiversity and certain important valuable crops from going into extinction, scientists are protecting these crops by establishing gene or germplasm banks by preserving their seeds. Selection It is one of the oldest procedures in which individual plants or group of plants are sorted out from mixed population, thus eliminating undesirable ones. Mass selection In this method, plants are selected based on their desirable morphological characters (phenotype). After repeated selection for about five to six years, selected seeds are multiplied and distributed to farmers. The only disadvantage of mass selection is that it is difficult to distinguish hereditary variation from environmental variation. Pure line selection A pure line is a collection of plants obtained as a result of repeated self-pollination from a single homozygous individual. Hence, a variety formed by this method shows more homozygosity with respect to all genes. Genetic variability is essential for adaptations in different environmental and seasonal conditions. Based on their phenotypic appearance, the method of clonal selection is employed to select improved variety from a mixed population (clones). Selected plants are multiplied through vegetative propagation to give rise to a clone. Introduced varieties sometimes do not get adjusted easily with our local environment. Sometimes, it is essential to select suitable and desirable variety from the introduced plants. For example, a mung Phaseolus mungo variety was introduced from China but was not giving good yield and produced dull coloured seeds. From amongst the introduced mung crop, a plant suddenly produced large and bright coloured seeds. This variant plant was selected and further subjected to inter or intra specific crosses with our native crop. In this way, new varieties were produced and released as newly developed mung variety. Hybridization Hybridization is a method in plant breeding to improve the native crops by obtaining diverse genotypes that can be used as a source material for collection of crop with desirable characters and genes obtained from many parts of the world. It involves crossing of two varieties or species or genera having desirable genes and breeding them together of the desirable traits into one progeny, which is called the hybrid. Hybrids are the products of first generation obtained by crossing genetically unrelated parents. When two individuals of the same species are crossed, it is called inbreeding or selfing or self-pollination. By careful observation of morphological features, we can remove these deleterious and harmful alleles by selection. Naked protoplasts are obtained through dissolution of their cell walls by the macerating enzymes such as pectinase and cellulase. Heterosis The superiority of the F1 hybrid in performance over its parents is called heterosis or hybrid vigour.


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The combination of in vitro human intesti nal cell models with in vitro digestion models in turn creates an advanced in vitro model sys tem where samples obtained from host responses lacking in in vitro digestion models can be directly applied to monolayer cell models for host function studies [21] medication 3 checks secnidazole 500 mg with amex. Bioactivity of digested/fermented foods or related target bioactive compounds in cell lines The chemopreventive properties of bioactive compounds have been investigated in cultured cells exposed to individual compounds medications post mi purchase secnidazole online from canada. However symptoms 7 days after embryo transfer buy generic secnidazole 500 mg on line, gut epithelial cells are more likely to be exposed to complex food matrixes containing mixtures of bioactive and antioxidant in vivo compounds [6]. In addition, food matrixes undergo a digestion process that may affect the structure and properties of the bioactive compounds. Therefore, the in vitro protective ef fects of antioxidant bioactive compounds do not necessarily reflect in vivo chemoprotection, which is more likely due to the combined effects of all the bioactive components present in the food [28]. In addition, other mechanisms of chemoprevention could involve protection against genotoxic compounds or reactive oxygen species [31]. It recently has been stated that the measurement of cellular bioactivity of food samples cou pled to in vitro digestion can provide information close to the real-life physiological situation [32]. In this sense, we surveyed more than 30 studies conducted in the past 10 years, involv ing human simulated gastrointestinal digestion and/or colonic fermentation procedures and subsequent bioactivity-guided assays with cell line models. The chemopreventive effect of digested foods or bioactive constituents in cell lines is sum marized in Table 1. From the 22 studies surveyed, and according to the digestion meth od used, it can be seen that most of them involve solubility (n = 17) versus dialysis (n = 5). Furthermore, these compounds are mainly studied in colon-derived cells (as a cancer model when not differentiated, or as an intes tinal epithelial model when differentiated). In addition, polyphenols are stud ied in neuronal cells, liver-derived cells and lymphocytes. Another aspect to bear in mind is the time of cell exposure to the digested food or bioactive con stituents. The range found in these studies is from 30 min to 120 h (this latter time point not being expectable from a physiological standpoint). Bioactive compounds of digested foods present four different but in some cases comple mentary modes of action: (1) inhibition of cholesterol absorption (phytosterols), and (2) antiproliferative, (3) cytoprotective and (4) antiinflammatory activities (polyphenols and general antioxidants). The inhibition of cholesterol absorption has been reported to be mainly due to competi tion between phytosterols and cholesterol for incorporation to the micelles as a previ ous step before absorption by the intestinal epithelial cells [35]. Antiproliferative activity has been linked to cell growth inhibition associated to pol yphenols [28, 32, 36-38] and lycopene [39], which is mainly regulated by two mech anisms: cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. The cell cycle can be halted at different phases: G /G with down-regulation of cyclin D [39], S with down-regula0 1 1 tion of cyclins D and B [28, 37] and G /M [36]. Apoptosis induction in turn oc1 1 2 curs as a result of caspase-3 induction and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL [39]. The colonic fermentation procedure used in these as says has always been a batch model, except for one study combining batch and dynamic fer mentation. In turn, when gastrointestinal digestion is involved, dialysis has been the method used. Foods of plant origin rich in fiber, and short chain fatty acids (mainly buty rate) and polyphenols as the target compounds have been used in such studies. The use of colon-derived cell lines is common in these assays, which have been performed using phys 138 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants iologically relevant concentrations and time periods of exposure of samples to cells ranging between 24 h and 72 h. The mechanism of action underlying the treatment of cells with colonic fermented foods or isolated bioactive constituents (see Table 2) mainly comprises antiproliferative activity (i) and/or cytoprotective action (ii). Conclusions and future perspectives From the data here reviewed in disease cell models, it can be concluded that gastrointestinal digestion/colonic fermentation applied to whole foods or isolated bioactive constituents may have potential health benefits derived from cell growth inhibition through the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, cytoprotection against induced oxidative stress, antiin flammatory activity and the reduction of cholesterol absorption. Studies conducted with single bioactive compounds are unrealistic from a nutritional and physiological point of view, since they do not take into account physicochemical changes during digestion and possible synergistic activities. Thus, a combined model of human si mulated digestion including or not including colonic fermentation (depending on the nature of the studied compounds) with cell lines should be carried out if in vitro bioactivity assays with whole foods or bioactive chemopreventive compounds for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases are planned. Although digested/fermented bioactive compounds appear as promising chemopreventive agents, our understanding of the molecular and biochemical pathways behind their mecha nism of action is still limited, and further studies are warranted. Sample Cell treatment (Target Cell type (Concentrations Cellular mechanism References compound/s) and time) Gastrointestinal digestion (dialysis) (Polyphenols) Cell growth inhibition Caco-2 85 to 220 (M Viability decrease Bermdez-Soto et al. Blackberry (300 M- 24 h) induced oxidative stress (neuroblast polyphenols (2012a) (Rubus sp.

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B medications with gluten cheap secnidazole online mastercard, ultrasound image of a stone in the apply the transducer a little bit to the right side in the gallbladder symptoms 5th week of pregnancy generic secnidazole 500mg otc. Usually you dont need to be worried if the cyst appears anechoic and fulfils the cyst Method: Expect a healthy liver and kidney to have a criteria (see below) medications band discount 500mg secnidazole. If a cyst is not anechoic any more but the liver is typical of a fatty liver whereas an apparently displays internal echoes you need to think of intracystic reduced brightness is in most cases due to an increased haemorrhage or of a parasitic hepatic cyst with septation. A common infection is due to Echincoccus granulosus These fatty infiltrations can look quite solid but are always (15. Although it is good idea of oedematous wall thickening, polyps or stones difficult to differentiate such lesions from abscesses, and tumours (which are actually extremely rare). While you scan the parenchyma of the liver, pay attention Stones usually generate acoustic shadowing, but tumours to any kind of focal lesions which appear and disappear do not. Most often they lie in the most dependent Although metastases in the liver present with a wide part of the gallbladder and move about when the patients variety of echogenicity, a very typical sonographic sign is position changes, unless they are impacted together and fill a dark narrow rim around the lesion which is called a the gallbladder completely. Especially in fast growing metastases you can sometimes find a cystic hypoechoic centre caused by Peri-vesicular fluid will appear as a black fringe around central necrosis. If a focal lesion has the same brightness the gallbladder as a sign of inflammation, perforation or as the liver parenchyma you may only detect it due to ascites. If you press directly with the probe on the liver borders or jaundice in your patient because of fundus of the gallbladder, and this causes acute pain, compression of the biliary ducts. Focal lesions which it is a true Murphys sign and a very reliable sign of present brighter compared to liver tissue can be harmless acute cholecystitis. It is crucial to recognize any air in the homogeneously hyperechoic, have a sharp but possibly gallbladder due to a colonic fistula or to infection with irregular demarcation and typically display a bright narrow gas-producing bacteria, as this is associated with a high rim. If your patient has a fatty liver keep in mind that haemangiomas exceptionally are silhouetted hypoechoic If you suspect cholestatic jaundice, ultrasound can help against the very bright liver tissue. Usually the intra-hepatic gallbladder: bile ducts are not visible but you will find them next to (1) Use appropriate pressure for your abdominal scan. If you find no dilation in This will push intestinal air out of the field of view. Approach: Apply the transducer in a sagittal orientation Approach: Apply the transducer in a sagittal orientation to the right of the midline, tilt the head infero-laterally, and along the right mid-clavicular line just below the ribs press hard. If you fail to see it, check that it hasnt already been Method: Adjust the position of the probe till you get an removed, and place the patient in the lateral decubitus optimal view of the pancreatic tissue. If this fails, try with the patient in the knee-elbow in the area of the pancreas, one of these lesions is likely to position (12-5). Alternatively, especially in obese patients, be a pathological lymph node or a cyst: check for distal view the gall bladder through the gap between the acoustic enhancement to confirm the presence of fluid in a 9th & 10th ribs on the right anterolateral thoracic cage. The left kidney can be difficult to visualize due to Approach: To scan the superior retroperitoneum apply the interfering ribs and intestinal air, so place the transducer in transducer in the epigastric angle, along the right of the the posterior axillary line. It is helpful to ask your patient to take and hold kidney, try placing the transducer head perpendicular to a deep breath. With this manoeuvre the liver will move caudally and Try to avoid turning the patient to the side: the kidney will replace disturbing air-filled intestines. A kidney-shaped structure not in the correct same for the inferior retroperitoneum. Firstly tilt the transducer probe to the The medullary pyramids are displayed like a row of black patients right side to scan the aorta which you will find (hypoechoic) holes between the parenchyma and the dorsal to the liver. Does the wall of the aorta looks smooth central collecting system (brighter due to its or do you find any evidence for artherosclerosis? It might be difficult to differentiate vessels, cysts and medullary pyramids especially if scanning conditions are If there is a suspicious aneurismal dilation, poor. Look out for intraluminal clots or a double arterial you usually should not be worried about them. These both appear less Be suspicious if a cystic structure is combined with anechoic than the vessel itself because they might not only calcifications (it might be renal tuberculosis) or if the cyst cut off the arterial supply to the spinal cord or to the has non-homogeneous solid parts which might represent a kidneys but also increase the risk for rupture, too. If you are thinking of nephrotic scan also for pleural effusions and dilated hepatic veins. As long as a vein is compressible there is almost certainly With age the parenchymal rim decreases physiologically no thrombosis. Although this is a simple method, but it might also be a consequence of several inflammatory it is important as only a fresh thrombosis appears bright on episodes or chronic urinary obstruction. Renal disease your image: therefore you might overlook an older one if usually causes the kidney to shrink <9cm in length.

Stage 1 vulvar cancer is limited to 1 labia and is less than 2 cm Stage 2 is > 2 cm Stage 3 involves nodes or invasive disease beyond the labia Treatment of stage 1- remove labia Stage 2- bilateral labial resin Stage 3- Wide en bloc resection and nodal dissection Question 17 The most common cause of persistent hyperparathyroidism after surgery is: A treatment zoster ophthalmicus purchase secnidazole with american express. Approximately 5% of patients having surgery for an adenoma have multiple adenomas medications that interact with grapefruit buy generic secnidazole 500mg on-line. Given the most likely do symptoms zollinger ellison syndrome purchase secnidazole discount, which of the following tests is the best for confirming it? You may have to gradually increase the alpha blocker until they have slight orthostatic hypotension. A 3-cm lesion is noted in the periphery of the right lobe of the liver that is homogenous with a central stellate scar. Amoebic abscess Question 2 Which of the following should you recommend for this patient? Focal nodular hyperplasia- central stellate scar in a homogenous lesion Answer 2 D. She has a 3 cm in the right lobe of the liver that appears to be hypervascular but does not have uptake on subsequent sulfur colloid scan. This hypervascular tumor in the right lobe with no uptake of sulfur colloid is most likely an adenoma. Question 4 Given the above scenario, which of the following should you recommend for this patient? She is found to have a 3 cm tumor in the right lobe of her liver that appears hypervascular with significant peripheral to central enhancement. She otherwise reports feeling fine and does not have any history of abdominal pain. This is an acquired lesion that is most likely secondary to a history of abdominal trauma B. They should be resected because there is a 10% incidence of malignant degeneration C. They occasionally can become infected but often can be treated by percutaneous drainage D. This is most likely due to retained antrum so you will need to consider repeat resection Answer 7 C. Remove her appendix and recommend to her post- operatively that she gets follow-up for an ovarian cyst D. In a cyst on a woman of childbearing years and unknown desire to have children, the best step would be to perform an appendectomy and monitor the cyst postoperatively Question 11 A 55 yo female is undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis. You find an inflamed appendix but also note a 6 cm cystic appearing right ovarian mass. Inform her next of kin, perform an appendectomy, and aspirate the lesion to send for cytology C. Inform her next of kin, perform an appendectomy and unilateral salpingoophorectomy, await pathology D. Given this patient has a relatively large cystic lesion and is most likely done with childbearing, removing the affected tube and ovary is an appropriate first step. Ovarian Mass- Benign May be solid or cystic Functional process or neoplasia Size, age of patient, tumor characteristics factor in on necessity of surgical removal 90% tumors in women younger than 30 benign 80% benign in 30-50 yrs 50% malignant in pts over 50 Follicular cysts- failure of a developing follicle to develop or regress. This is not considered a sentinel event because it is not due to your medical error D. The patient probably only has 3 glands so the hyperparathyroidism was probably misdiagnosed as an adenoma and is most likely secondary to hyperplasia B. You should close at this point and repeat sestamibi postoperatively Answer 13 C. This tumor is most likely a benign esophageal leiomyoma and can be adequately treated with enucleation. Benign Tumors of Esophagus Benign tumors and cysts of the esophagus are uncommon Can be intramural or intraluminal Leiomyomas- 50% of benign tumors Usually solitary in lower 1/3 Dysphagia and pain most common sx Dx- barium swallow Biopsying may scar tissue planes, complicating removal Can be removed by simple enucleation Esophageal cysts Enteric or bronchogenic cysts Usually intramural in the middle or lower 1/3 Treat by enucleation Question 1 A 62 yo man presents with ischemic lesions in his right foot. Esophagectomy should be recommended Barretts & High Grade Dysplasia Esophagectomy is considered the standard Have 10% incidence of associated malignancy with high-grade dysplasia For non-high grade Barretts, endoscopic surveillance and treatment of reflux (surgical or medical) is appropriate Question 4 Which of the following is a contraindication for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer? This is likely an intraductal papilloma and there is a 50% chance of this being malignant B. Localization with major duct excision Is usually curative Intraductal Papilloma of Breast Most commonly present with bleeding/bloody nipple discharge. His final pathology reveled a focus of adenocarcinoma in the lamina propria of the gallbladder but no invasion into the muscularis.

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